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Alfonsism (Spanish: Alfonsismo), refers to the movement of Spanish monarchist's that supported the restoration of Alfonso XIII as King of Spain after the proclamation of the Spanish Republic in 1931.[1] The Alfonsists competed with the rival monarchists, the Carlists for the throne of Spain.[1]

History

Politically, before 1923, Alfonso XIII and his supporters had generally supported liberal democracy alongside Catholic traditionalism with a minority authoritarian wing as well, including support of Charles Maurras' conception of monarchy.[2] After the overthrow of the monarchy, Alfonsists began to adapt authoritarian elements from Italian Fascism, Action Française, and Portuguese Integralism into their cause.[2]

After the overthrow of Alfonso XIII, Alfonsist supporters formed the Renovación Española, a monarchist political party, which held considerable economic influence and had close supporters in the Spanish Army.[3] Renovación Española did not, however, manage to become a mass political movement.[3] Alfonso XIII had alienated the Union Monárquica Nacional political party by deposing Miguel Primo de Rivera as Prime Minister.[3] The Alfonsists received little support outside of their clique of well-established supporters, while their rivals, the Carlists, soared to become a mass movement in Spain.[4] Renovación Española cooperated with the fascist Falange led by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, hoping to coopt it as a tool for the party's objectives.[2] In 1937, the Alfonsists of Renovación Española joined alongside the Falange, the Carlists, and the CEDA under Francisco Franco's directive to form a united National Movement during the Spanish Civil War, which was known as the Spanish Traditionalist Phalanx of the Assemblies of the National Syndicalist Offensive (FET-JONS).[5]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Blinkhorn, Martin (1975). Carlism and crisis in Spain, 1931–1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 69.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Martin Blinkhorn. Fascists and Conservatives. 2nd ed. Oxon, England, UK: Routledge, 2001. Pp. 127.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Andrew Forrest. The Spanish Civil War. London, England, UK; New York, USA: Routledge, 2000. Pp. 10.
  4. Martin Blinkhorn. Fascists and Conservatives. 2nd ed. Oxon, England, UK: Routledge, 2001. Pp. 133.
  5. Martin Blinkhorn. Fascists and Conservatives. 2nd ed. Oxon, England, UK: Routledge, 2001. Pp. 133–134.

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